BACKGROUND & AIMS:
Due to inflammatory and hypermetabolic responses and to extensive exudative trace element (TEs) losses, major burn patients have substantially increased nutritional requirements. To date, information is only available for Cu, Se, and Zn. We aimed at analyzing losses of 12 TEs and Mg through burn wound exudation and corresponding plasma concentrations during the first week after burn injury, and to evaluate the impact of current TE repletion protocols.
Burn wound exudate was collected under negative pressure in 15 adult patients burned 29 ± 20% of body surface (TBSA) for 8 days after injury. Two samples were collected daily. The TE concentrations were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Losses and serum concentrations were compared to intakes.
For the majority of 12 TEs, the highest losses were observed on day 1, and declined thereafter. Despite Cu supplementation (4.23 mg/day) serum levels remained below reference values. Se supplements (745 μg/day) normalized and even increased serum levels to upper normal value. Despite large supplements (Zn 67.5 mg/day), serum Zn values remained below reference range. Large exudative losses of B, Br and Mg were found, as well as of Fe and I, with the latter being probably due to contamination.
Current nutritional Cu, Se, Zn repletion protocols in major burn patients which were based on measured exudative losses should be revised to include higher Cu and lower Se doses, as well as planned Mg administration. In burns <20% TBSA and for the other TEs the recommended parenteral nutrition TE doses appear sufficient.